Semi-Empirical Stellar Equations

I’ve spent a lot of time trying to answer certain questions in astronomy, where I just want a rough approximation for the purpose of a simulation, and don’t need an exact answer. These are some of the equations I’ve come up with.

Temperature (K) → Absolute Magnitude (visual):
Mv = 35.463 * exp(-0.000353 * T)
Roughly accurate between 2000-50000 Kelvin. Probably doesn’t continue accuracy at hotter temperatures.

Absolute Magnitude (visual) → Luminosity (solar luminosities):
Lsun = 100 * exp(-0.944 * Mv)
Accurate between 0-10 Mv. Probably continues accuracy relatively well.

Spectral (UBVRI) Filters:
Ultraviolet, Blue, Visual, Red, Infrared.
Objects are listed in different indexes:
UV for the hottest objects (stellar remnants, galaxies), then BV (the majority of stars), and RI for the coolest (LTY “stars” and below).

B-V index (x) → Temperature (K):
T = -772.2x3 + 3152x2 – 6893x + 9500
Sorta accurate between 0-2. (This equation I am least comfortable with, and don’t plan to use.)

Main Sequence Luminosity/Mass Relation:
Lstar / Lsun = (Mstar / Msun)3.5

Yerkes Classes’ T/Mv Relations

These equations are shown as functions where x is temperature in Kelvin, and f(x) is absolute visual magnitude. Most are valid from 2400 K to a little bit past 30000 K, the exceptions are noted. For the hypergiants and white dwarfs, the range is within an elliptical region, of which these functions define the major axis; for all others, they are a center-point along a Yerkes classification.

Hypergiants (0):
f(x) = -8.9
Supergiants (Ia):
f(x) = -0.00135x3 + 0.0233x2 + 0.0187x – 7.349
Supergiants (Ib):
f(x) = 0.00329x3 – 0.0962x2 + 0.829x – 7.209
Bright Giants (II):
f(x) = 0.00557x3 – 0.166x2 + 1.505x – 6.816
Giants (III):
f(x) = 0.0135x3 – 0.373x2 + 3.019x – 7.233
Subgiants (IV):
f(x) = -0.151x2 + 2.216x – 5.128 (4450-100000 K only)
Dwarfs (V):
f(x) = 0.00193x5 – 0.0615x4 + 0.742x3 – 4.257x2 + 12.439x – 12.996 (note: this one is the least accurate)
Subdwarfs (VI):
f(x) = 0.131x3 – 3.275x2 + 27.576x – 71.7 (3050-6000 K only)
White Dwarfs (VII):
f(x) = 0.489x + 10.01 (4450-30000 K only)

A Journey into λCalculus

I’m playing around in Minetest, and I have an idea. In order to execute this idea, I’m going to need a simple programming language. Asking Google… implementing a simple programming language

7 lines of code, 3 minutes: Implement a programming language from scratch
Sounds good! Ridiculously simple, fast, and gives us a fully usable language. (I would’ve understood brainfuck better..) Let’s see what this language looks like:

(λ v . e)   anonymous function with argument v and returning e
(f v)       call function f with argument v
(λ a . a)   example: identity function (returns its argument)

And the scary one:
(((λ f . (λ x . (f x))) (λ a . a)) (λ b . b))

Seems okay until I get to understanding that last example. If you’re curious about the steps I went through before I finally figured it out, here are my notes. I’m gonna skip to the good part:

(((λ f . (λ x . (f x))) (λ a . a)) (λ b . b))
two identity functions, let's name them I, & remove excess parenthesis
(λ f . (λ x . (f x))) I I
the syntax is still confusing me, let's make an "F" function
F(x) -> return (λ x . (f x))
F I I                          equivalent to ((F I) I)
substituting the function (identity) into our definition gives us
(λ x . (I x))         actually the same as the identity function
I(I)                  all comes to returning the identity function

λ x . x

Now, at this point I’ve learned a few small tricks for my understanding, as well as how lambda calculus works in general.


Solving a lambda calculus program is made of three (or 2.5) steps called reductions:

  • η-conversion (eta): Replace equivalent functions with simpler forms (λ x . f x) -> f
  • β-reduction (beta): Substitution (λ a . a) x -> x (essentially, THIS is solving it)
  • α-conversion (alpha): Rename conflicting names (λ a . a b) (λ a . a) -> (λ a . a b) (λ c . c)


This is where my journey ends for now. I started studying lambda calculus because of a desire to implement a simple programming language, but this will likely not satisfy my least not in this form. Here are additional resources: